Autonomy Supportive Coaching - Task 7

NUTRITION ASSIGNMENT Manore, M.M., Meyer, N.L. & Thompson, J. 2009. Sport Nutrition for health and performance. 2nd ed. Human Kinetics. Leeds, UK.

Chapter 1 Good nutrition can improve physical performance, decrease recovery time, prevent injuries, provide fluid and fuel during highly intensive training and it helps to maintain an appropriate body weight. New ideas from this introductive chapter were all the data and info about quantity of calories per different type of foods and the pyramids, for normal or for active individuals. It was interesting to read also the common physical activities classified per calories requirements. Something that I should implement in practice is first of all how to build my own food guide pyramid: modifying food choices gradually, choosing foods from all the five major groups every day, using more moderation, spicing up my life with new foods and tastes, drinking a lot (I noticed how much my nutrition habits were better in Australia because I was forced to drink a lot for the hot temperatures, so then everything comes within), evaluating my lifestyle and getting active every day.

Chapter 2 Carbohydrate is an important component in the diets of athletes because its required for glycogen synthesis and for the maintenance of blood glucose levels during exercise. 5 to 7 grams of carbs per kilogram body weight should be provided in the diet of moderately active athletes and up to 10 grams of carbs during periods of heavy training and competition. The body's carbs reserves are primarily in liver and muscle glycogen and of course more intense activities require more glycogen than low-intensity exercises. New idea was about the primary carbs and sugars in the diet and the advices about high-carbohydrates diet during an intensive training phase, plus all rules about carbs pre and after a competition: from 2 to 4 hours, small and easy to digest, familiar to the athlete and of course some small details that just depends on the differences of every individual. This is very important for me to implement during intensive training periods and competitions, such the following week when we'll be in Portugal with my team to have couple of days of trainings and 5 consecutive days of competitions.

Chapter 3 Dietary fat is a primary source of energy because it provides fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, and important also because it add flavor to the food. Animal foods are generally much higher in fat that plant foods. The body apparently have unlimited ability to store fat in adipose tissue and the typical fat intake for the general population is around 34% of total energy intake. Good for fat oxidation is increasing one's level of fitness and low-fat diets appear to offer no health or performance benefit. So if carbs should be 45% to 65% of energy intake, fat should be 20% to 35%; athletes with chronic disease risk factors should modify fat and carbs intake in type and amount. New ideas came when I read about dietary fat intakes of active individuals and the utilization of fat diets: from a single high-fat meal before exercise to a high-fat diet followed by 1-2 days of high-carbs diet.

Chapter 4 Proteins are a critical component for building materials for bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles and organs. Enzymes and hormones are also proteins and they assist with maintaining fluid and acid-base balance. They are important both during and following exercise. Proteins utilization is affected by exercise intensity and duration, training level, energy intake and carbohydrate availability. New concept was the one about the differences of nutrient timing: Also, there is a difference between strength and endurance exercises: people that regularly engage in endurance activities need dietary protein intake of 0.55 to 0.64 g/lb body weight per day while for strength exercise is needed a dietary protein intake of 0.73 to 0.77 g/lb body weight per day.

Chapter 6 Both diet and exercise play critical roles in achieving healthy body weight and energy expenditure must be greater than energy intake for weight loss to occur. Programs to lose weight include consumption of a diet that is adequate in carbs, proteins and healthy fats. Maintaining an appropriate body weight can decrease the risk of morbidity and mortality from some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabete, stroke and certain forms of cancer. Unfortunately, athletes are generally quite concerned about their weight and this can lead to eating disorders and injuries; this can threaten athletes' physical, mental and emotional health. But it has to be considered also that rapid and extreme weight loss can lead to dehydration, reduced performance and even death. For practical use are the instructions for determinations of body size, percentage of body size and fat distribution, as we already did for example last year a bit.

Chapter 8 Body water makes up a significant proportion of body weight. It functions as a transport medium, as a structural part of body tissues, as a lubricant and as a component of chemical reactions. It's very important to know the function of water and it was interesting to see the graph about approx. of hourly sweating rates for runners at various exercise intensities. Considerations before exercise are: last meal should be eaten 1 to 4 hours before the start, drink 5-7 mL/kg body weight 4 hours before exercise, sports drink containing electrolytes help retain ingested fluids better than water (but this also depends on the individual), if having sport in the heat is better to add 300-400 mL of liquid before the activity, athletes should attempt hyperhydration in training first. I want to implement this in practice: the fluid needs in hot and cold environments. Basically, as it is crucial for our performance and sometimes, I had problems as well depending on the temperature because I didn't have the knowledge, I would like to teach this to my athletes, probably in Portugal during one evening meeting. Exercise in the heat increases sweat and fluid loss; the body's core temperature rises quickly under such circumstances and can lead to hyperthermia. A heat-acclimated athlete will sweat more heavily and sooner that one who is not acclimatized and thus will more effectively adapt to severe environmental stressors such as heat and humidity. In the cold maintaining fluid balance involves several challenges; respiratory fluid loss can be substantial leading to accelerated fluid loss and limited access to fluids as well as rest room facilities can lower voluntary fluid intake.